• Criminology
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Type of service: Writing From Scratch

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Summarize the contents of the article by the subject matter, sequence of ideas, or arguments the article makes, in a concise manner Specifically relate the article to the current knowledge the student has regarding their topic, previously covered course material and articles read in previous courses


Across the world, the police department major role is to ensure that citizens follow the rule of law. It is, however, true that in their line of duty, the actions of police officers are affected by organizational and environmental factors. In a way these factors will have an impact on how the officer in question performs his or her duties. Following this allegation, a research was conducted to find out how organizational and environmental determinants affect police activities. This was not an easy task because information the researcher required was not easily provided by the police agencies.

One thing that was noted is that the beside the size of the police organization,other aspects affect how law enforcers carry out their duties, for example, police officers are not supposed to report to anyone the number of people they kill during an operating. The research concluded that some organizational determinants of police activities will include, complexity of the task, technology, culture, span of control, coupling and many others. To understand these determinants and how they affect the police activities, an officers working at a bureaucratization department serves the role of helping the citizens instead of that of a law enforcer (Raines, 2010).

In the conclusion, the ideas presented by the author are logical in that in a given work area, there factors that will affect how workers perform their activities. In this context, we find a police officer providing services to the community but at other scenario, the same police officer serves a very different role. Following how the author urged his facts, it is clear that he was well informed on the topic he presented. Reflecting on the objective of this research, it is true that both organizational and environmental forces affect police activities.




Raines, J. B. (2010). Ethics in policing: Misconduct and integrity. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.


Type of paper:Case study
Discipline:Health Care and Life Sciences
Format or citation style:APA


Paper instructions:
Prof reading and editing


Brown Stacy is a 53 year old, single African American female who was a client at an agency that is geared toward helping homeless families in Yolo  county. Her reason for seeking assistance at the agency was due to her being homeless. For the last 6 years Stacy has mostly been spending nights in the streets and shelters. Thus, her main concern and need was housing. However, in the past she had successfully completed treatment programs for alcohol and drug, but that does not solve the problem because of her homelessness and she believed her problems are intertwined because of not having a shelter.  The clientcame at the agency voluntary after she was referred by one of the pastor`s at the church that she was currently attending. After the client was referred at the agency her first intake session and orientation was scheduled. The client arrived on time for the session and it was conducted by the Student.  Therefore, the student followed the agency policy by gathering pertinent information about the client inorder to see whether she would qualify for the services that were offered.

Upon the client arrival the client was invited by the student with a good handshake and she was invited in the room where the session took place. The client appeared a little bit older that her stated age, she seemed to be under weight,   was dressed in warm clothing and she did not appear clean and her hair was not well groomed and as the session took place she did not maintain good eye conduct. The client used public means of transportation to come at the agency and was issued a bus pass at the end of the session. At the beginning of the session the client did not seem to talk much. However, that changed after the studenthad built rapport with the client and the client started to tell her side of the story. Stacy disclosed to the student the reason that had led to her visit at the agency was due to her homelessness. She added and said her greatest concern was housing. The client stated that after she had lost housing she did not have anyone to turn to and she was compelled to be staying at different shelters and sometimes she spent some of the nights in the streets when the shelters were full.  She said life was too hard and now that winter was approaching she was afraid that she would get sick. She also stated she felt that she was not being a good parent to her children and grandchildren because she does not have a home to be visited at by her family. She stated that all her children were legally old enough and they were on their own. According to the client she stated she felt like she had been abandoningher  children and grandchildren because they cannot visit her or even aid her children in babysitting  them her as her  children  go went to work.She stated that her children were compelled by circumstances to work many hours so that she could be able to provide for their children because her children are single parents and they were high school dropouts. According to the client she came from a single low income family. She stated she was raised in a bad neighbored which exposed her to bad things which led her to dropping out of school.

The student asked the clientwhereshe had spent the night the previous night. Stacy stated the three shelters she had been previously beenstaying at are usually first come first served, thus the shelters have been full for the couple of nights. According to the client whenever the shelter were full she spend the night outside and she was worried, because the winter was approaching. When asked whether she had tried some other women shelters in the area she said her choices were very limited due to her background.  She stated in the past she had gotten in trouble due to various reasons. When she was asked about her background she stated that when she was 19 years of age she was arrested due to using Marijuana, at age  22  she was arrested due to stealing at a grocery store and she was also evicted due to failure to pay rentfew years ago, thus her credit was not good. Stacy stated her life had been very hard and she felt like she had not been productive in her life. She added and said she wished life could be rewinded and be given another opportunity to live again. The student asked for more clarification and asked the client what she would  doin case she was given another chance. She stated she would go to school and get education, be a good parent by providing for her family and raise them in a good environment and not to violate the law. She said life had been so overwhelming with intertwining unavoidable circumstances one after the other. The client stated the only way to cope up with her unending obstacles is to use drugs. The client was asked by the  student whether she receives any government assistance due to her age. She sated she does receive SSI in the amount of $ 300.00  The client was asked whether she uses the money to buy the drugs and she denied. Later on she stated the only way to relieve some of the stress of her being homeless is to use drugs and she admitted to be using some of the money to buy drugs. The student could smell an Adorsmell of alcohol coming from the client’s breath. Stacy was asked the last time she either used alcohol or drugs she stated she had couple of beer the previous night prior to coming to the office.

Stacy seemed frustrated and she was Crying as the session went on. The client stated her greatest concern was housing.  Patricia expressed her frustration during the entire session. The client stated she had previously tried to lease an apartment, but it seemed to be like a nightmare due to her background. Thus, she believed she needed someone to advocate for her. The lead case manager was consulted and the client was admitted to the program, however she was advised to be patience with the process as the agency submitted the required paperwork to the government. The client was requested to submit her ID, Social security card, birth certificate and letter of homelessness.The client was advised to provide a permanent number so that she could be updated regarding her file. The client stated she did not have a phone. However, Stacy was notified it might be hard to update her without a good working phone number. The client`s main concern was housing which was set as a goal. Nevertheless, since the client did not have a working phone that seemed to be a great challenge, when it came to updating the client about her case.


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MLA referencing style is one of the commonest styles used in modern academic papers. The MLA Handbook 8th edition provides guidelines for the contemporary use of referencing using the Modern Language Association (MLA) style. In most instances, the guidelines offered are for writing humanities and literature. The handbook available (8thedition) outlines the mechanics of writing and formatting using the style, evaluation of sources, plagiarism issues, and in-text citation.

In-text citations for MLA style involve the author(s) name(s) and the page number, line, minute (as in a television transcript) or anything else denoting the exact place from where the information has been taken from in the paragraph as cited. For example: (Marcus, 45), (Marcus and Lewis, 30) or (Marcus et al, 21). The MLA 8th edition handbook provides information on citation mechanics involving audio-visual resources, indirect quotations, and long quotations as well as mechanics of writing things such as abbreviations in the paper.

As for MLA, there is no separate cover page as the details are written left-indented at the first page. There is no head on the right of the header but just the page number on the left of the header and the writer’s surname spaced a centimeter away from the page number. The title of the paper is in bold and left-indented too, usually approached in the form of a question in most cases. However, MLA has a separate reference page that is headed as ‘Works Cited’. In this section, the list should be arranged alphabetically depending on the name that starts at every reference in the instance many references are used. The names of the author(s) start, the headings are italicized, and the list of works cited has to be double spaced like the rest of the paper. The paper needs to be in Times New Roman font, font size 12, and double spaced.